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Strategies

The term 'strategy', as defined by Martin Reisigl and Ruth Wodak (2001: 44), describes 'a more or less intentional plan of practices (including discourse practices) adopted to achieve a particular social, political, psychological or linguistic aim'.  A number of such strategies and various typologies for them have been proposed (see Chilton 2004; Chilton and Schäffner 1997; Hart 2010; Reisigl and Wodak 2001; Wodak 2001).  In racist discourse, these include reference, predication, argumentation, perspectivation, and intensification or mitigation (Reisigl and Wodak 2001: 44-56).

Referential (or nomination) strategies are strategies by means of which speakers classify social actors (see van Leeuwen 1996) .  In predicational strategies speakers assign to social actors evaluative - positive or negative - attributes.  In argumentation strategies, predications function as topoi to justify discrimination and/or exclusion.  In perspectivation strategies speakers express their own point of view by appraising the propositions they are communicating.  In intensification or mitigation strategies speakers strengthen or weaken the epistemic status of propositions.