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Text

'Text' is used to refer to particular language usages with an identifiable beginning and end situated in time and place. Texts can be considered the outcome of discourse.  That is, discourse is a process that produces text (Brown and Yule 1983: 25; Widdowson 1979: 71).  On this definition, texts are a 'trace' of the communicative act, or discourse event (Brown and Yule 1983: 6).  They may be spoken or written, where written texts represent a (semi)permanent record.  Of course, written texts may be records of spoken texts.   For some scholars, such as Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen (2001) text is conceived as multimodal rather than limited to linguistic form.  Texts are also concrete realisations of discourses (Lemke 1995), which is to say that discourses find their expression in text (Kress 1985: 27).